Most innovations have been triggered by advent of new materials, and the present energy, environmental and resource issues are expected to be solved by new materials. We focus on to explore new materials and their synthesis routes using ion-exchange and ionic intercalation techniques. Proton conducting phosphate glasses working at intermediate temperatures and narrow gap oxide semiconductors applicable in visible and NIR regions have been recently developed. Simple and safe synthesis routes to cadmium-free quantum dot phosphors and colloidal indium arsenide quantum dots for solar cells were also found out. Thin-film solar cells, fuel cells and light-emitting devices using those materials are now developing.