Characterization and control of microscopic composition and structure are important in improvement of performances of advanced alloys and oxides having superior properties. In this laboratory, various analytical methods using photons, electrons and ions are applied for characterizing the microscopic chemical composition and structure of the advanced materials. Technological processes for improving performance of the advanced materials are designed on the basis of the results. Main subjects are characterization and control of the structure of nano-particles of various metal and oxides using advanced methods and the microstructure and texture in novel alloys. Figures exemplify the magnetic domain structure of a magnetostrictive iron alloy single crystal under applying different magnetic fields, and the microstructure of a deformed shape memory alloy, in which a part of matrix is transformed to the martensitic phase.