Most innovations have been triggered by advent of new materials, and the present energy, environmental and resource issues are expected to be solved by new materials. We focus on to explore new materials and their synthesis routes using ion-exchange and ionic intercalation techniques. Proton conducting phosphate glasses applicable to the intermediate temperature fuel cells (ITFCs), mixed protonic and electronic conductors suitable to electrodes for ITFCs and narrow gap oxide and chalcogenide semiconductors applicable in visible and NIR regions have been recently developed. Thin-film solar cells and fuel cells using those materials are now developing. New materials consisting of elements not currently utilized are also exploring.