It is difficult to precisely control the structure of carbon-based materials with non-crystalline frameworks. Moreover, precise structure drawing of such non-crystalline materials is also a difficult issue. We have developed the new techniques which allow the bottom-up synthesis of advanced carbon materials with controlled structures at atomic/molecular scale, specifically using organic synthesis or chemical-vapor deposition. Thus, a variety of functional carbon materials have been achieved such as metal-carbon frameworks with defined chemical structures like organic crystals, micro/mesoporous materials with singlegraphene walls, and carbon-based composite materials. Also, we focus on the elucidation of physicochemical properties of carbon materials including reactivity, durability, and catalysis from the view point of chemistry by using advanced analysis techniques. Moreover, we proceed in the application of our advanced carbon-based materials for supercapacitors, secondary batteries, fuel cells, heat pump, new energy devices, functional adsorbents, catalysis, and healthcare, with many collaborators including research organizations and companies.