Soft- and bio-materials form complex hierarchical structures in wide spaces and times. Nanoparticles combined with organic molecules and polymers cause interesting phenomena such as phase separation, self-assembly, and change of chemical state and local structure with space-time scale. Understanding the function and structure formation dynamics with the hierarchical structure of nanocomposites is essential for the development of new materials. To understand the correlation between the structure and function of hybrid nanomaterials, we use synchrotron X-ray analysis to visualize the chemical state, structure, and dynamics of atoms under reaction. We progress the hierarchical structural chemistry of materials and discover novel functions.